New school of thought produces safer process control designs

A "new" way of thinking about problem solving—derived from the Russian Navy—has potential to improve safe designs of process control systems.Presently accepted tools, such as Hazardous Analysis and Operability (HAZOP) studies, What-if reviews, and event trees are used to conduct formal safety audits of process designs to ensure the consequences of incidents have been eliminate...


A 'new' way of thinking about problem solving derived from the Russian Navy has potential to improve safe designs of process control systems.

Presently accepted tools, such as Hazardous Analysis and Operability (HAZOP) studies, What-if reviews, and event trees are used to conduct formal safety audits of process designs to ensure the consequences of incidents have been eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.

Formalized safety audits bring together knowledgeable disciplines where information is presented, discussed, analyzed, and recorded. The assumption however, is most hazardous conditions result from defects in design, material, workmanship, or human error.

Progressing through the P&IDs, each line, vessel, and element is analyzed to ensure causes of risk have been identified and mitigation methods provided.

Using line by line, single item jeopardy analysis methods, like HAZOP reviews, miss asking questions related to system performance, process interactions, and initiating events.

Anticipatory failure determination

During the 40's, Genrich Altshuller, an engineer working in the Russian navy-patent department, began what became a life long search for a systematic procedure to guide inventors to promising technical areas. Altshuller's work attracted enthusiasts who carried on what was later named 'Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch' (TRIZ), which translates to 'Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems.'

TRIZ's methodology helps eliminate contradictions and makes it an effective methodology for creative technical problem solving.

When confronted with a complex technical problem, most people seek the solution by drawing on previous experience and knowledge of solutions applied to similar problems. Depending on our experience, solutions are sought in one of four quadrants (See Solution space diagram). If the first solution concept is unsuccessful, another is sought, but almost always our solution exploration remains in the quadrant of our knowledge.

Finding solutions to complex technical problems often requires 'thinking outside out
knowledge-based box.' Anticipatory failure determination is a methodology to develop
creative solutions to complex technical problems and is effective in conducting system failure analysis.

Anticipatory failure determination (AFD) is a methodology developed using TRIZ concepts. AFD is more generalized than HAZOP or What-if list and provides a tool for analyzing systems and functions.

When AFE and HAZOP are used concurrently, analysis includes how to cause an event to happen (AFD), and what might happen as a result of the event (HAZOP).

When entire control systems were supplied by a single vendor, most users assumed the manufacturer performed a system risk assessment and had implemented methods to 'gracefully' accommodate hardware and/or software faults.

Deployment of 'open' system solutions shifts the burden to conduct system wide risk assessments from manufacturers to system integrators and users. Control systems assembled using 'open' hardware, software, and networks should be analyzed to determine system performance during periods of 'heavy use' and/or device faults. Where findings indicate system performance could be jeopardized, measures must be incorporated to protect against catastrophic system failures.

Using AFD methodologies provides an effective means of conducting system analysis.

For more information on TRIZ and AFD, visit :

CONTACT INFORMATION: Ideation International Inc. 21800 West Ten Mile Road Suite 119 Southfield, MI 48075 P: 248/353-1313 F: 248/353-5495 e-mail: web:

Author Information

Dave Harrold, senior editor,

No comments
The Engineers' Choice Awards highlight some of the best new control, instrumentation and automation products as chosen by...
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners.
Control Engineering Leaders Under 40 identifies and gives recognition to young engineers who...
Learn more about methods used to ensure that the integration between the safety system and the process control...
Adding industrial toughness and reliability to Ethernet eGuide
Technological advances like multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) transmitting and receiving
Virtualization advice: 4 ways splitting servers can help manufacturing; Efficient motion controls; Fill the brain drain; Learn from the HART Plant of the Year
Two sides to process safety: Combining human and technical factors in your program; Preparing HMI graphics for migrations; Mechatronics and safety; Engineers' Choice Awards
Detecting security breaches: Forensic invenstigations depend on knowing your networks inside and out; Wireless workers; Opening robotic control; Product exclusive: Robust encoders
The Ask Control Engineering blog covers all aspects of automation, including motors, drives, sensors, motion control, machine control, and embedded systems.
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
News and comments from Control Engineering process industries editor, Peter Welander.
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
This is a blog from the trenches – written by engineers who are implementing and upgrading control systems every day across every industry.
Anthony Baker is a fictitious aggregation of experts from Callisto Integration, providing manufacturing consulting and systems integration.
Integrator Guide

Integrator Guide

Search the online Automation Integrator Guide

Create New Listing

Visit the System Integrators page to view past winners of Control Engineering's System Integrator of the Year Award and learn how to enter the competition. You will also find more information on system integrators and Control System Integrators Association.

Case Study Database

Case Study Database

Get more exposure for your case study by uploading it to the Control Engineering case study database, where end-users can identify relevant solutions and explore what the experts are doing to effectively implement a variety of technology and productivity related projects.

These case studies provide examples of how knowledgeable solution providers have used technology, processes and people to create effective and successful implementations in real-world situations. Case studies can be completed by filling out a simple online form where you can outline the project title, abstract, and full story in 1500 words or less; upload photos, videos and a logo.

Click here to visit the Case Study Database and upload your case study.