Efficiencies, losses of liquid versus dry-type transformers

There are important tradeoffs to be made when moving transformers from outdoor locations to inside a facility.

08/21/2012


I saw a design for very large data center project a few years ago, that used twenty-four 3,000-kVA cast resin units located inside the facility, close-coupled to low voltage switchgear, in a wise "loadcenter" approach (with RC snubbers on the primary of every unit). That arrangement probably eliminated at least a million pounds of underground copper that would have been otherwise required to connect transformers to switchgear.

However, there are important tradeoffs to be made when moving transformers from outdoor locations to inside the facility. One obvious tradeoff is that indoor electrical rooms need to be enlarged to accommodate the physical space requirements of the transformers (which can be significant, especially if they include primary air switches).

Secondly, the heat from the losses of the transformers now is exhausted to inside the building, instead of simply being vented to outdoor air. In most cases, that heat will result in additional loading on the plant’s cooling system, which usually will greatly increase the magnitude of wasted energy. You have the waste heat due to losses rejected by the transformers inside the building, plus the energy consumed by the cooling system to remove that same waste heat from the building. So, efficiency becomes even more important when moving the transformers indoors.

The table below shows a comparison of four styles of transformers, with "typical" efficiencies, in the facility in the above example. Assumptions in the table are that transformers are running at average loading of 75% and that average cost of energy is $0.07 per kWH. The right column uses the Cooper FR3 Envirotemp HDC transformer as baseline, and shows the incremental cost of the other three types, using those assumptions.

Comparison of Transformer Types and Parasitic Wasted Energy

Transformer
Construction
Type
Efficiency at
75% Average
Load
Energy Wasted
Annually,
Incl. HVAC
Incremental Annual
Cost of Wasted
Energy
FR3 Liquid HDC, 55 C
99.6%
3.80 MW-Hr
$0
Cast Coil, 80 C Rise
99.2%
8.89 MW-Hr
$356,440
VPI or Cast Coil Dry, 115 C Rise
98.7%

15.32 MW-Hr

$806,384

VPI Dry, 150 C Rise
98.4%
19.62 MW-Hr
$1,203,098


Some readers will argue that there are designs of dry-type and cast coil transformers available with higher efficiencies than those typical values listed in the table. That’s true, but improving efficiency in any dry-type design almost always involves large increases in physical size and in initial cost (and often, involves large and difficult-to-manage increases in inrush current on energization).

The point is, that a liquid HDC transformer, with its average winding temperature operating at 55 C above ambient temperature, will always produce lower losses and less heat than a dry-type transformer with its windings running at an 80 C, 115 C, or 150 C temperature above ambient air temperature.



The Engineers' Choice Awards highlight some of the best new control, instrumentation and automation products as chosen by Control Engineering subscribers. Vote now (if qualified)!
The System Integrator Giants program lists the top 100 system integrators among companies listed in CFE Media's Global System Integrator Database.
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
This eGuide illustrates solutions, applications and benefits of machine vision systems.
Learn how to increase device reliability in harsh environments and decrease unplanned system downtime.
This eGuide contains a series of articles and videos that considers theoretical and practical; immediate needs and a look into the future.
HMI effectiveness; Distributed I/O; Engineers' Choice Award finalists; System Integrator advice; Inside Machines
Women in engineering; Engineering Leaders Under 40; PID benefits and drawbacks; Ladder logic; Cloud computing
Robotic integration and cloud connections; SCADA and cybersecurity; Motor efficiency standards; Open- and closed-loop control; Augmented reality
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) represent the logic (decision) part of the control loop of sense, decide, and actuate. As we know, PLCs aren’t the only option for making decisions in a control loop, but they are likely why you’re here.
This digital report explains how motion control advances and solutions can help with machine control, automated control on assembly lines, integration of robotics and automation, and machine safety.
This article collection contains several articles on how advancements in vision system designs, computing power, algorithms, optics, and communications are making machine vision more cost effective than ever before.

Find and connect with the most suitable service provider for your unique application. Start searching the Global System Integrator Database Now!

Control room technology innovation; Practical approaches to corrosion protection; Pipeline regulator revises quality programs
Cloud, mobility, and remote operations; SCADA and contextual mobility; Custom UPS empowering a secure pipeline
Infrastructure for natural gas expansion; Artificial lift methods; Disruptive technology and fugitive gas emissions
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me