Robotics tutorial: More diversity, functionality

Robotics are adapted to and integrated with an increasing diversity of applications. Understanding types of robots and their functions can help end users, system integrators, and original equipment manufacturers know how to safely and efficiently apply technologies that save humans from tasks that are both mundane and dangerous.

10/01/2008


Cartesian robots are ideal for precise operations like electronics assembly, inspection, and dispensing. Source: Bosch Rexroth
Above: Cartesian robots are ideal for precise operations like electronics assembly, inspection, and dispensing. Source: Bosch Rexroth
Below: Even among cartesian robots, there's diversity, as this Hercules Gantry X-Y robot shows. Source: Rockwell Automation
Even among cartesian robots, there

Robotics are adapted to and integrated with an increasing diversity of applications. Understanding types of robots and their functions can help end users, system integrators, and original equipment manufacturers know how to safely and efficiently apply technologies that save humans from tasks that are both mundane and dangerous.

In industries from automotive to packaging, the use of robots is increasing steadily and impressively, says Dan Throne, sales and marketing manager, Bosch Rexroth Corp.– Electric Drives and Controls.

North American robotics orders rose 24% in 2007 over 2006, he says, citing Robotics Industries Association (RIA). Today’s robots offer repeatability, speed, accuracy, ability to operate in harsh environments, reduced total footprint, less scrap, and more flexibility than prior generations.

“That last attribute—flexibility—probably gets the most attention. Flexibility means that countless robotic solutions can be configured from a few basic types of robots,” Throne says. These include:

  • SCARA (selective compliant articulated robot arm) robots, with arms rigid in the Z-axis and moveable in the X-Y axes, are ideal for assembly operations like inserting pins in holes. SCARA robots can be faster than Cartesian robots and have a small footprint, but are often more costly.

  • Parallelogram robots use 3 parallelograms and rotating levers operated by servo motors or linear actuators. They’re well suited to pick-and-place operations.

  • Delta robots are a form of parallelogram robots used for top loading and infeeds, and can execute up to 150 picks per minute—perfect for packaging, pharmaceutical, assembly, and clean-room applications.

  • Cartesian robots have linear axes of control, and can be configured for “brawn” operations (transporting auto body parts) or “brains” operations like creating precise designs on a surface.

  • Articulated robots have a rotating trunk, shoulder, bicep, forearm and wrist. They are well suited for placing small parts accurately as well as packing and palletizing.

Availability of standardized programming, make robots easier to control, configure, and reconfigure. Unlike the expensive and proprietary products of the past, Throne says, today’s motion control and PLC products allow plants to run robotics using standard programming languages such as IEC 61131-3. Standardized controls with user-friendly software setup wizards require no downtime for specialized operator or programmer training.

When choosing a robot type, look at payload, space constraints and application uses, among other considerations, says John Good, director of marketing, linear motion solutions business, Rockwell Automation.

“Increased demand for applications that require dynamic performance, high reliability, greater accuracy and improved repeatability has pushed adoption of direct drive technology,” which can improve performance over “belts, ball screws, rack and pinion, and feature improved reliability, accuracy and repeatability.”


ONLINE extra

 

Controls add to robotic flexibility, application diversity; photo gallery

 

Original equipment manufacturers are starting to run robotics with off-the-shelf controls. Even large robot manufacturers are adopting the use of embedded nonproprietary software. Tutorial, robotic photo gallery, useful links follow.

 

www.controleng.com/article/ca6597271.html


Author Information
Mark T. Hoske, editor in chief, can be reached at mhoske@reedbusinss.com .




Engineers' Choice Awards
The Engineers' Choice Awards highlight some of the best new control, instrumentation and automation products as chosen by Control Engineering subscribers.
System Integrator Giants
The System Integrator Giants program lists the top 100 system integrators among companies listed in CFE Media's Global System Integrator Database.
System Integrator of the Year
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
How to Maximize Factory Automation Efficiency with Low Cost Machine Vision
This eGuide illustrates solutions, applications and benefits of machine vision systems.
Wireless Reliability in Harsh Environments
Learn how to increase device reliability in harsh environments and decrease unplanned system downtime.
Human Factors and the Impact on Plant Safety
This eGuide contains a series of articles and videos that considers theoretical and practical; immediate needs and a look into the future.
June 2018
Discrete and process sensor fundamentals, autotuning controls, system integrator roundtable
May 2018
Salary and Career Survey, IT and OT convergence, robotic standards and safety, secure circuit protection
April 2018
Cybersecurity best practices, artificial intelligence, robotic additive manufacturing, embedded systems, IIoT integration, energy efficiency
Edge Computing
This article collection contains several articles on how today's technologies heap benefits onto an edge-computing architecture such as faster computing, better networking, more memory, smarter analytics, cloud-based intelligence, and lower costs.
IIoT: Machines, Equipment, & Asset Management
Articles in this digital report highlight technologies that enable Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT-related products and strategies.
PLCs
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) represent the logic (decision) part of the control loop of sense, decide, and actuate. Featured articles in this digital report compare PLCs and programmable automation controllers (PACs), industrial PCs, and robotic controllers.
SIDB

Find and connect with the most suitable service provider for your unique application. Start searching the Global System Integrator Database Now!

June 2018
Machine learning, produced water benefits, progressive cavity pumps
April 2018
ROVs, rigs, and the real time; wellsite valve manifolds; AI on a chip; analytics use for pipelines
February 2018
Focus on power systems, process safety, electrical and power systems, edge computing in the oil & gas industry
John O. Ayuk, PE, CFSE, PMP, CAP
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
Doug Baker
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
Data Centers: Impacts of Climate and Cooling Technology
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
Safety First: Arc Flash 101
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
Critical Power: Hospital Electrical Systems
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
Engineers' Choice Awards
The Engineers' Choice Awards highlight some of the best new control, instrumentation and automation products as chosen by Control Engineering subscribers.
System Integrator Giants
The System Integrator Giants program lists the top 100 system integrators among companies listed in CFE Media's Global System Integrator Database.
System Integrator of the Year
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
How to Maximize Factory Automation Efficiency with Low Cost Machine Vision
This eGuide illustrates solutions, applications and benefits of machine vision systems.
Wireless Reliability in Harsh Environments
Learn how to increase device reliability in harsh environments and decrease unplanned system downtime.
Human Factors and the Impact on Plant Safety
This eGuide contains a series of articles and videos that considers theoretical and practical; immediate needs and a look into the future.
June 2018
Discrete and process sensor fundamentals, autotuning controls, system integrator roundtable
May 2018
Salary and Career Survey, IT and OT convergence, robotic standards and safety, secure circuit protection
April 2018
Cybersecurity best practices, artificial intelligence, robotic additive manufacturing, embedded systems, IIoT integration, energy efficiency
Edge Computing
This article collection contains several articles on how today's technologies heap benefits onto an edge-computing architecture such as faster computing, better networking, more memory, smarter analytics, cloud-based intelligence, and lower costs.
IIoT: Machines, Equipment, & Asset Management
Articles in this digital report highlight technologies that enable Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT-related products and strategies.
PLCs
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) represent the logic (decision) part of the control loop of sense, decide, and actuate. Featured articles in this digital report compare PLCs and programmable automation controllers (PACs), industrial PCs, and robotic controllers.
SIDB

Find and connect with the most suitable service provider for your unique application. Start searching the Global System Integrator Database Now!

June 2018
Machine learning, produced water benefits, progressive cavity pumps
April 2018
ROVs, rigs, and the real time; wellsite valve manifolds; AI on a chip; analytics use for pipelines
February 2018
Focus on power systems, process safety, electrical and power systems, edge computing in the oil & gas industry
John O. Ayuk, PE, CFSE, PMP, CAP
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
Doug Baker
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
Data Centers: Impacts of Climate and Cooling Technology
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
Safety First: Arc Flash 101
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
Critical Power: Hospital Electrical Systems
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
Engineers' Choice Awards
The Engineers' Choice Awards highlight some of the best new control, instrumentation and automation products as chosen by Control Engineering subscribers.
System Integrator Giants
The System Integrator Giants program lists the top 100 system integrators among companies listed in CFE Media's Global System Integrator Database.
System Integrator of the Year
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
How to Maximize Factory Automation Efficiency with Low Cost Machine Vision
This eGuide illustrates solutions, applications and benefits of machine vision systems.
Wireless Reliability in Harsh Environments
Learn how to increase device reliability in harsh environments and decrease unplanned system downtime.
Human Factors and the Impact on Plant Safety
This eGuide contains a series of articles and videos that considers theoretical and practical; immediate needs and a look into the future.
June 2018
Discrete and process sensor fundamentals, autotuning controls, system integrator roundtable
May 2018
Salary and Career Survey, IT and OT convergence, robotic standards and safety, secure circuit protection
April 2018
Cybersecurity best practices, artificial intelligence, robotic additive manufacturing, embedded systems, IIoT integration, energy efficiency
Edge Computing
This article collection contains several articles on how today's technologies heap benefits onto an edge-computing architecture such as faster computing, better networking, more memory, smarter analytics, cloud-based intelligence, and lower costs.
IIoT: Machines, Equipment, & Asset Management
Articles in this digital report highlight technologies that enable Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT-related products and strategies.
PLCs
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) represent the logic (decision) part of the control loop of sense, decide, and actuate. Featured articles in this digital report compare PLCs and programmable automation controllers (PACs), industrial PCs, and robotic controllers.
SIDB

Find and connect with the most suitable service provider for your unique application. Start searching the Global System Integrator Database Now!

June 2018
Machine learning, produced water benefits, progressive cavity pumps
April 2018
ROVs, rigs, and the real time; wellsite valve manifolds; AI on a chip; analytics use for pipelines
February 2018
Focus on power systems, process safety, electrical and power systems, edge computing in the oil & gas industry
John O. Ayuk, PE, CFSE, PMP, CAP
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
Doug Baker
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Jose S. Vasquez, Jr.
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
Data Centers: Impacts of Climate and Cooling Technology
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
Safety First: Arc Flash 101
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
Critical Power: Hospital Electrical Systems
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me