Control System Voltage Choices
Control engineers should take a closer look at '120 V ac vs. 24 V ac/dc' question.
O ne of the first decisions control system designers must make at the onset of any design process is how much system voltage their project will need. Often use of 120 V ac for control system power is based on traditional usage, simply because it has always been done that way. However, there are viable alternatives to 120-volt control systems that have evolved over the history of the control system.
A short history
Electrical control systems began replacing mechanical control systems approximately 100 years ago. In many cases, early electrical control systems used the same voltage for control as the driven device because it was convenient and easily accessible (i.e. 120 V ac.) Larger electrical motors required large magnetic contactors for starters. Early contactor designs were not very efficient, and thus required large amounts of power to generate contactor pull-in and hold-in forces. Higher voltages made these devices practical, as the required currents were lower.
Pros and cons of using 24 V ac/dc for control systems?
As electrical and electronics practices evolved, control system and power distribution practices emerged. In general, electrical control circuits used small amounts of power to control larger amounts of power for driven equipment. Modern control system designs addressed both power distribution to the driven devices (motors, solenoids, positioners, etc.) and control of those devices.
The control system is normally designed to use very little power relative to the controlled equipment. Control systems typically include discrete devices (e.g. switches and counters) and analog devices (e.g. transmitters, meters, and positioners). The power component of a control system normally controls and distributes power at higher voltages (e.g. 208, 240, and 480 V ac). Not all industrial segments, most notably the HVAC industries, have embraced 120 V ac for control purposes.
Computers were first applied to control systems in the late 1950s and were rapidlygaining acceptance by the 1970s. As with any new technology, the introduction of computers had to 'blend' with the older technology in order for them to be adopted/accepted. In this case, PLCs and I/0 devices were designed to replace relay ladder logic-style control systems. The new PLCs were often constructed to allow 120 V ac for I/O functions. By the 1980s, many designers began to question use of 120 V ac for control functions. Because I/O signals usually went into a digital device or out to a relay, lower voltages could be used. Control systems designers and component manufacturers now see the advantages of using low voltage. They are now adopting 24 V as standard because it is practical and safe.
Modern control systems are often very complex. Troubleshooting control systems frequently requires that they be powered up while the system is checked. The use of 24 V reduces the likelihood of injury caused by shock. A typical control system uses 24 V ac for panel and field I/O devices. This system would also use 24 V dc for analog instrumentation. And, alternately, 24 V dc could be used for panel, field I/O and analog devices. The flexibility in the choice of ac and dc or all dc or all ac covers most control situations.
Deciding what voltage level is most appropriate depends on several factors. For small systems, all the controls can be implemented using 24 V dc. For systems with motor starters, 24 V ac is available by providing a step down transformer connected to the power feeders at the starter. Systems with analog instruments and starters probably are best served by having both 24 V ac and dc available. Where 120 V ac is needed for specific applications, interposing relaying can be provided. Today, many factors are combining to help propel the adoption of 24 volts for control purposes. (See the sidebar below, which summarizes the pros and cons of the 'best practice' 24-volt alternative.)
John F. Heneage, P.E., is a senior program manager, Dufresne-Henry Inc. (Manchester, N.H.), a multidisciplined, national engineering firm, where he provides electrical and instrumentation design support. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org