Extending wind turbine reliability
Wind turbines are making a major impact on the power generation market, but they need constant maintenance in order to remain reliable and continue delivering clean energy, even after the manufacturer’s warranty has expired.
Electricity is essential to everyday modern life. Turning on the lights, watching television, getting a cold drink out of a refrigerator or riding a train – electricity is all around us and something we can’t imagine our day without. Even though it’s required for almost everything that we do, we won’t necessarily stop to think about where the electricity we’re using is coming from.
Over the past decades, the number of wind turbine installations has continued to increase as the need for renewable energy sources has grown. So has the need for their maintenance. Specialist service providers are needed to make sure that the turbines keep turning and generate electricity.
Since wind turbines were first commissioned on an industrial scale, the technology and design of the components has progressed rapidly, enabling units over 1 MW to be installed with an expected working life of around 20 years.
Planning for warranty expiration
Wind turbine manufacturers offer a warranty period of five to ten years, where the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) has a contract with the owners to deliver maintenance and repair projects. When this expires, owners are able to seek out more cost-effective suppliers, but any savings must not be at the expense of quality or expertise.
Wind turbines built by the same OEM will contain many common components from the same manufacturers, but this is not always the case when it comes to the generator. Very often, two identical models of wind turbine will contain generators from different suppliers, which can make maintenance programs more complex.
Once a generator has arrived at the service center, it is important to establish the technical details of the machine and carry out a series of initial tests and discover the precise condition of the generator. These are followed by the tear-down and visual inspection, which offer additional information on the work that needs to be carried out.
From here, the reliability and availability of the turbine will be determined. The choice of materials used to rewind a generator and the way in which they are installed can make all the difference between uninterrupted service for two years or ten years.
Modern insulation technology used in generator windings allows for thinner layers which can withstand greater dielectric stress and higher temperatures, which also allows more space for copper within the same slot area. This reduces the resistance of the stator winding, which runs cooler, allowing an increase in output.
Most operators will hold at least one generator as a spare unit so that it can be installed at the same time the faulty component is removed from the nacelle. This optimizes repair times and minimizes costs by only requiring the specialist crane to be on site for one day.
However, the storage of generators needs some special attention if these vital pieces of equipment are going to remain serviceable. It’s good if the generators are kept in a climate-controlled atmosphere that minimizes moisture content and temperature fluctuations. It’s also a good idea to make sure the drive shafts are turned at least once a month to prevent bearings and seals ‘taking a set’.
If a spare component is not available, the time in the workshop becomes critical because every hour is lost generating time and this can be a significant loss. This is in addition to the extra crane costs that will be incurred due to the lifting equipment needing to return to site to install the repaired generator.
Minimizing repair times
Depending on the make of the generator, a repair might take two weeks, but some designs are more complicated than others, so this time can extend in some cases. Computer-aided design (CAD) software can help create bars or coils that are precisely formed to ensure an exact fit in the stator slot, making the installation process more efficient.
By using comprehensive testing techniques, the reliability of the new coils and the repair as a whole can be guaranteed. Testing at full voltage, with both the rotor and the stator being tested for insulation resistance as well as partial discharge provides evidence of the build quality of the project.
Preserving the reliability of a wind turbine is essential for keeping it operational and cost effective. By working to prevent potential failures, condition monitoring and repair work can be planned ahead of time, ensuring that any downtime is minimized.
In addition, a greater breadth of experience, supported by expert design engineers, allows modifications to the original components to be introduced that will improve durability. By delivering these as part of a planned schedule, productivity can be maximized and component failures avoided.
– Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media. See more Control Engineering energy and power stories.